- Transition, English Landscape Garden, 1779-1830
Fine fruit is cultivated for eating and not just for cider as earlier. In 1801 ‘Johny Appleseed’ starts planting trees in Ohio, helping to bring fruit trees westward.
Flowers, shrubs, and trees There is a passion for collecting exotic plants from South America, Africa, and the new plants collected by The Lewis and Clark expedition from the American West. Nurseries vie to provide new selections yearly, even including hardy species of grapes. There are seed houses as early as 1737, but after the revolution, a break in control of trade allows commercial nurseries to proliferate, with the plant material set out in naturalistic displays. In 1828, the Belgian horticulturalist, Andre Parmentier, is the first to open a nursery in Brooklyn displaying the plant stock in suggested Romantic style design, including a rustic "grotesque" style arbor made of rough branches and moss. The planting style for all this material is to place taller pointed evergreens like cedar and spruce in the center and rear of a thicket, surrounding it with shrubs, tiered down to an edging of flowers. A favorite tree-shrub combination is conifers with rhododendron.
After 1800, a new manufacturing process makes iron stronger, increasing its use for railings, and other decorative garden items such as large urns, which however, are not used as planters but set out as pieces of sculpture.